欢迎访问华泰官方网站!请选择网站语言:

脉冲除尘器常见故障分析与处理方法
 Analysis and solution of common failures of pulse dust collector

粮食粉尘是粮食装卸、输送过程中爆炸的主要燃料来源。粮食粉尘是高度可燃的,如果足够多的粮食粉尘在空气中飘散或积聚某一物体表面并遇到一个火源(如发热的轴承、过热的电机、跑偏的传送带、焊接、切割等),就会燃烧或爆炸。

Grain dust is the main fuel source of explosion during grain loading, unloading and transportation. Grain dust is highly combustible. If sufficient grain dust disperses in the air or accumulates on the surface of an object and encounters ignition source (such as hot bearings, overheated motors, off-track conveying belts, welding, cutting, etc.), it will burn or explode.

美国职业安全与健康管理局(OSHA)标准要求粮食加工仓储企业必须控制粮食粉尘和火源,以防止这些经常致命的爆炸。对粮油加工企业,除尘器是有效控制粉尘的关键设备。维护除尘设备处于良好的运行状态,以减少爆炸的风险,并有助于为当班人员提供更好的安全。

The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards require that grain processing and storage companies must control grain dust and ignition sources to prevent the fatal explosion. For grain and oil processing enterprises, dust collector is the key equipment to control dust effectively. Maintaining dust removal equipment in good working condition reduces the risk of explosion and helps to provide better safety for the staff on duty.

一、除尘器工作原理Working principle of dust collector

含尘气体由进风口切向进入中箱体,经旋转分离,粒径较大的粉尘先行沉降,粒径小含尘气体通过滤袋过滤后成为净化空气,进入上箱体,从出风口排出,粉尘积附在滤袋外表面。当积附粉尘达到一定量时,必须进行清灰。清灰时高压气流按设定要求由脉冲控制仪顺序触发各电磁阀喷气,经喷孔进入滤袋,滤袋瞬间急剧膨胀,使积附在滤袋表面的粉尘抖落,进入排灰装置经关风器排出,如此周期性脉冲喷吹清灰,使滤袋处于有效的过滤状态,保证除尘系统正常工作。 

Dusty gas enters the middle box tangentially from the air inlet, through rotation separation. The larger dust particles settle firstly,the dusty gas is filtered by filter bags to become purified air, enters the upper box, and discharges from the air outlet,dust accumulates on the outer surface of filter bags. When the accumulated dust reaches a certain amount, it must be cleaned. When cleaning dust, the high-pressure airflow injects air according to set requirements while each solenoid valve is triggered by pulse controller and enters filter bags through nozzle holes. The filter bags expand instantly and rapidly to shake off the dust accumulating on the surface of filter bags and then enters dust discharge device,and discharges through the airlock, and the dust is cleaned by periodic pulse blowing so that filter bags are in effective filtration state and the dust removal system works normally. 

除尘过程:清灰动力为压缩空气→通过控制仪和电磁阀的作用→开启脉冲阀→压缩空气在瞬间被释放→并引射几倍于压缩气量的空气→通过文氏管一同射入滤袋→使滤袋表面的粉尘破碎和脱落。

Dust removal process: the power of dust removal is compressed air → through the action of the controller and solenoid valves → open the pulse valve → the compressed air is released instantly → and eject air which is several times as the amount of compressed air → inject the filter bags together through venturi→ the dust on the surface of filter bags falls off.

二、常见故障的原因及处理方法Causes and solution of common failures

及时有效地解决除尘器运行中的故障,不但能保证生产的连续性,而且对延长除尘器的使用寿命有着积极意义。

Solving the failures of dust collector timely and effectively not only can ensure the continuity of production, but also have positive meaning for extending the service life of dust collector.

1、除尘器吸风量降低,吸风口不能有效捕集粉尘

The suction volume of dust collector is reduced, and the exhaust inlet can not collect dust effectively 

原因1:风管堵塞,风门移位。

处理方法:清理风管,固定风门。

Cause 1: The air duct is blocked and the air door is shifted.

Solution: Clean the air duct and fix the air door.

原因2:除尘器、风管密闭不严,局部漏风。

处理方法:检查及处理除尘器及风管的密闭性。

Cause 2: The dust collector and air duct are not tightly sealed, there is air leakage locally.

Solution: Check and solve the sealing of dust collector and air duct.

原因3:除尘器设计风量太小。

处理方法:更换除尘器。

Cause 3: The designed air volume of dust collector is too small.

Solution: Replace the dust collector.

原因4:风机不匹配。

处理方法:更换风机。

Cause 4: The fan does not match.

Solution: Replace the fan.

原因5:滤袋堵塞。

处理方法:

(1)当含尘气体浓度过大时,增加预过滤或增大除尘器。

(2)当含尘气体湿度过大时,保温或加热,更换为拒水覆膜滤料。

(3)当含尘气体吸湿性强粘附于滤袋表面时,保温或加热,更换成覆膜滤料。

(4)当滤袋使用时间长时,更换滤袋。

(5)当参数设置清灰周期过长,喷吹宽度太短时,调整脉冲控制仪,缩短清灰周期。

(6)当滤袋受喷吹气体含油、水影响时,清理过滤器。

(7)当清灰强度不足时,调整喷吹压力。

(8)当脉冲控制仪出现紊乱,无法控制清灰时,检查控制仪。

(9)当电磁阀不动作,线圈损坏,膜片损坏变形,弹簧失效时,及时更换。

(10)当电磁阀不动作,设置回路不对时,调整脉冲控制仪重新设置。

(11)当停机顺序不对,没有延长喷吹时,按规范调整停机顺序,增加喷吹延时。

(12)当出灰不畅,积料过多时,清理灰斗,检查出灰机构。

Cause 5: The filter bag is blocked.

Solution: 

(1) When the dusty gas concentration is too large, increase pre-filter or enlarge dust collector.

(2) When the humidity of dusty gas is too high, preserve heat or heat, and replace it with water-repellent membrane filter materials.

(3) When the dusty gas has strong hygroscopicity and adheres to the surface of filter bags,preserve heat or heat and replace it with membrane filter materials.

(4) When filter bags works long time, replace the filter bags.

(5) When set cleaning cycle is too long and the blowing width is too short, adjust the pulse controller to shorten the cleaning cycle.

(6) When filter bags are affected by the oil or water in the sprayed gas, clean the filter.

(7) When the cleaning intensity is insufficient, adjust the blowing pressure.

(8) When the pulse controller is in disorder and cannot control the dust removal, check the controller.

(9) When the solenoid valve does not work, the coil is damaged, the diaphragm is damaged and deformed, or the spring fails, replace it in time.

(10) When the solenoid valve does not work and the setting loop is incorrect, adjust the pulse controller to reset it.

(11) When the shutdown sequence is wrong and the injection is not extended, adjust the shutdown sequence according to the specifications and increase the injection delay.

(12) When the dust discharge is not smooth and accumulated dust is too much, clean the dust hopper and check the dust discharge device.

2、除尘器吸风量过大,吸风口吸入过多粉尘

The air suction volume of dust collector is too large, and the exhaust inlet sucks too much dust

原因1:风门移位。

处理方法:调节、固定风门。

Cause 1: The air door is shifted.

Solution: adjust and fix the air door.

原因2:除尘器设计风量太大。

处理方法:更换除尘器。

Cause 2: The designed air volume of dust collector is too large.

Solution: replace the dust collector.

原因3:风机不匹配。

处理方法:更换风机。

Cause 3: The fan does not match.

Solution: Replace the fan.

原因4:滤袋破损、脱落。

处理方法:检查滤袋。

Cause 4: The filter bag is damaged or falling off.

Solution: Check the filter bag.

原因5:滤袋积尘量过小。

处理方法:

 (1)当清灰周期过短,喷吹脉宽太宽时,调整脉冲控制仪,延长清灰周期。

 (2)当清灰强度过高时,调整喷吹压力。

Cause 5: The amount of accumulated dust in the filter bag is too small.

Solution:

 (1) When the cleaning cycle is too short and the blowing pulse is too wide, adjust the pulse controller to extend the cleaning cycle.

(2) When the cleaning intensity is too high, adjust the blowing pressure.

3、除尘器出口冒灰

There is dust at the outlet of dust collector

原因1:滤袋破损、脱落。

处理方法:检查滤袋。

Cause 1: The filter bag is damaged and falling off.

Solution: Check the filter bag.

原因2:滤袋安装密封不好。

处理方法:检查重新安装。

Cause 2: The filter bag is not properly installed and sealed.

Solution: Check and re-install.

原因3:花板损坏。

处理方法:维修花板。

Cause 3: The flower board is damaged.

Solution: Repair the flower board.

原因4:粉尘粒度过细。

处理方法:更换滤料。

Cause 4: The size of dust particle is too small.

Solution: Replace the filter materials.

原因5:清灰周期过短,喷吹脉宽太宽。

处理方法:调整脉冲控制仪,延长清灰周期。

Cause 5: The cleaning cycle is too short and the blowing pulse is too wide.

Solution: Adjust the pulse controller to extend the cleaning cycle.

原因6:清灰强度过强。

处理方法:调整喷吹压力。

Cause 6: The cleaning intensity is too strong.

Solution: Adjust the blowing pressure.

4、除尘器灰斗积灰

Dust accumulation in dust hopper of dust collector

原因1:排灰不及时。

处理方法:调整排灰频率。

Cause 1: The dust is not discharged timely.

Solution: Adjust the frequency of dust discharge.

原因2:排灰机构失常。

处理方法:维修排灰机构。

Cause 2: The ash discharge device is abnormal.

Solution: Repair the dust discharge device.

原因3:排灰口漏风。

处理方法:检查密封。

Cause 3: Air leakage at the dust discharge port.

Solution: check the seal

原因4:粉尘积拱。

处理方法:增大排灰角度,人工清理或使用击振器。

Cause 4: Dust accumulation.

Solution: Increase the dust discharge angle, clean up manually or use strike vibrator

原因5:粉尘湿度大。

处理方法:采取保温措施。

Cause 5: The humidity of dust is high.

Solution: Take measures to preserve heat

三、结语Conclusion

世界上第一个全球粉尘火灾和爆炸跟踪平台DustEx的研究表明,自2016年以来,粉尘收集设备在可燃性粉尘事故中所占比例最大,平均为23%。美国化学品安全与危害调查委员会(CSB)的历史数据表明,除尘设备在粉尘事故所占比例则高达40%。

The research from the first global dust fire and explosion tracking platform DustEx in the world shows that since 2016, dust collection equipment has accounted for the largest proportion in combustible dust accidents, with an average of 23%. The historical data of the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB) shows that the proportion of dust removal equipment in dust accidents reaches 40%.

与其他设备相比,除尘器在记录的粉尘爆炸中所占的比例也较小,但是受伤人数很多。确保除尘器处于良好运行状态,对粮油厂库的正当运营至关重要。

Compared with other equipment, dust collectors account for smaller proportion in recorded dust explosion accidents, but there were many injured people. Ensuring dust collector in good working condition is crucially important to the proper operation in grain and oil plants or warehouses.

联系我们 / Contact Us

  • 电  话:0372-8112798   8128666   8115666
  • 手机(24小时):15896803999
  • 传  真:0372-8116068
  • 邮  编:456400
  • 邮  箱:hxljc@hxljc.com
  • 公司总部地址:河南省滑县新区湘江路与富民路交汇处
  • 郑州研发中心地址:郑州市高新区翠竹街1号企业总部基地26号楼6层
  • 网  址:http://www.huatailiangji.com
  • 友  链:环氧乙烷灭菌器
首页